response one: The musculoskeletal system is composed of voluntary muscles also connective tissues such as the bones, joints, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and fascia which all have different purposes that support the movement of the body (Grand Canyon University, 2018). Abnormal findings may happen due to injury, disease, inflammatory disease, noninflammatory conditions, and tumors (Grand Canyon University, 2018). Signs and indications can include pain, paralysis, edema, warmth, spams of the muscles, less variety of motion, stiffness, and consideration and can be diagnostic tests that can be done to identify and diagnose the cruelty of the condition (Grand Canyon University, 2018). Musculoskeletal problems can affect the patient’s function by reducing their mobility which in turn can lead to skin breakdown. It can also begin to depression due to the day to day changes that can occur, so they must have psychosocial support.
Metabolism begins with the endocrine method and many ways that secrete hormones are capable of various functions of the body and when it is functioning appropriately, the hormones released by the specific organ and provide the appropriate response by binding to the target cells of the organ (Grand Canyon University, 2018). An abnormal decision may transpire due to stress from illnesses or changes such as defects from birth, surgery, trauma, cancer, infection, or autoimmune diseases which can cause a disturbance to reasonable hormone regulation such as diabetes, hypothyroid, Cushing’s syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome (Grand Canyon University, 2018). With DM 2, the body does not use insulin properly and can influence a patient’s life by possessing to manage their lifestyle with changes to nutrition, inactivity, and weight gain. An individual with diabetes must learn to maintain their blood sugar levels with what they eat, check their blood sugar, and use insulin.
Sepsis is the body’s response to an infection where the body clears immune system elements into the blood, making inflammation systemically and can manage to septic shock (Grand Canyon University, 2018). Sepsis can happen from an epidemic from a disease process or injury such as pneumonia or a traumatic injury. Sepsis can lead to life-threatening events, and in order to avoid worsening symptoms, it must be handled promptly. A patient’s life is affected, and the patient must be provided with maintenance and education about restraint measures such as managing infections directly before they worsen.
Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Pathophysiology: Clinical applications for client health. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-clinical-applications-for-client-health/v1.1/
Response two: The normal function of the musculoskeletal system is comprised of voluntary muscles and connective tissues, and the connective tissues are bones, joints, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and fascia (Grand Canyon University, 2018). Bones protect internal organs, bears the weight of the body, store minerals, produce red and white blood cells, lever for muscles, and muscle contraction. Joints allow flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, circumduction, rotation, thumb-finger opposition. Cartilage supports tissue, allows a smooth surface for the place of connection for bones in joint movement. Muscle produces voluntary movement as a result of neuronal stimulation. Ligaments provide joint stability by connecting bones together at a joint, allows controlled movement within a joint, prevents excessive movement within a joint. Tendons attach muscles to the bone as an extension of the muscle sheath that adheres to the periosteum. Fascia surrounds bundles of muscle, nerves, and blood vessels to allow for limited stretching surrounds individual muscles. Bone remodeling is where the bone needs repaired or replaced for skeletal maintenance.
Osteoporosis makes the bone more fragile. Osteoclasts dissolve and resorb calcified bone and existing bone matrix; between 2-4 weeks, if there is osteoporosis, the osteoclasts remove the bone. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and account for 40-45% of the bodyâ€s weight. Metabolism begins with the endocrine system, which consists of essential organs that secrete hormones that are responsible for various functions within the body. When the body is functioning correctly, hormones are released by the appropriate organ and elicit appropriate responses. Abnormal findings like when the body is under stress, such as congenital disabilities, surgery, the trauma the production and secretion of hormones are disrupted.
Diseases that are caused by hormone disruption include diabetes, hypothyroid, Cushingâ€s, plus many more. Sepsis is the bodyâ€s response to infection; stages of sepsis include systemic inflammatory response, sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. Sepsis begins from pneumonia, or traumatic injury, the infection spreads from the primary source into the bloodstream. Those who are susceptible to sepsis are pediatric, geriatric, trauma and burn patients, those with compromised immune systems, someone who has a central line, indications of sepsis would be: temperature, tachycardia, tachypnea, WBC >12,000 or <4000, mottled skin, capillary refill >3seconds, decreased urine output over a 1-hour period, lactic acid >2, change in LOC. Tests should be performed within 3 hours of symptoms to begin interventions and avoid progression and multi-organ failure.
Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Pathophysiology: Clinical applications for client health. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs410v/pathophysiology-cl…
Response three: Gout is a â€œform of inflammatory arthritis that develops in some people who have high levels of uric acid in the blood (Arthritis Foundation, 2019). Uric acid is small crystals that form in a joint and cause redness, pain, swelling, warmth, and tenderness. Genetics, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart conditions may increase the risk of gout. Some medications such as directics , drugs that supress the immune system, gender and age, the foods you eat, the things you drink, and even weight factors into risk for development. As the uric acid level increases, the crystals are settling in the joints. A night of drinking may cause the â€œuric acid levels to spike or jostles the crystals that have formed in the jointâ€ (Arthritis Foundation, 2019).
This is called an acute attack, patients may experience future attacks and can develop a chronic condition where attacks are more frequent, pain doesnâ€t go away, and joint damage occurs. When this occurs a patient may have difficulty walking. Gout use to be the disease of the rich and famous but now is common in any population. Triggers are the foods rich in red meat, shell fish, the drinks such as sodas, beer, and wine. One of the nursing interventions would be to teach patients to avoid triggers to prevent attacks. A low-purine diet may be just what the doctor calls for, this diet is more about what to avoid eating. Wild game, red meat, some seafood, and organ meat have high levels of purine. High fat foods can hold uric acid in the kidney, alcohol and sweetened beverages can raise uric acid levels and increase the risk of gout. Healthier choices such as whole-grain bread, low fat dairy products, pasta, rice, potatoes, fruits and vegetables, and foods rich in vitamin C. Diet change may not be the only way to prevent gout and patient should discuss other options with their primary care physician.
Arthritis Foundation, (2019). What is Gout? Retrieved from
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