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Peer Responses:
    Length: A minimum of 150 words per post, not including references
    Citations: At least one high-level scholarly reference in APA per post from within the last 5 years
    Citations need to be within 5 (Five)  years
    Context: Nursing in the USA


T6 W8 D1 R1

The pathophysiology of acne vulgaris is complex, with both internal and external triggers characterized by increased sebum production and abnormal desquamation of epithelial cells; this condition develops initially with the formation of microcomedo that obstructs the follicular canal, which is aggravated by the fusion of  corneocytes and hyperkeratosis of the follicular lining resulting in keratin and sebum formation in the follicle (Well, 2018). In addition, the process of acne vulgaris formation continues with the obstruction by the plug also called comedone that triggers the inflammatory process, the sebaceous gland duct and the cells continue to pack into the follicle, the plug expands behind a small follicular opening to the skin resulting in distension of the follicle and formation of a closed comedone, dilating the pores, and reopening the plug, and the final result is the formation of blackhead (Well, 2018). Acne vulgaris is caused by Propionibacterium that lives in the pilosebaceous follicle, originates from the normal flora of the skin and it causes inflammation  and irritation associated with acne vulgaris; hormonal changes such as menses, testosterones, sex hormones, androgen hormones, polycystic ovarian syndromes, medications like Litium, phenytoin, cosmetics products, tight clothing and under garments can all contribute to acne vulgariS as external factors (Well, 2018). Acne vulgaris pathophysiology mechanism follows four common steps including formation of excessive keratin in the hair follicles, overproduction of of sebum by the hair follicles, invasion of the bacteria called Propionibacterium that is part of the skin normal flora, and the inflammatory process; and acne vulgaris is generally noted on the face, neck, shoulders, trunk, arms, legs and buttocks, varying in severity (Dlugasch, Story, 2021). Overall, Acne Vulgaris affects over 65 millions people worldwide with physical, psychological, financial, esthetic impacts on the patients; usually diagnosed with history and physical examination and treated based on the severity using medications such as Azelaic acid, Salicylic acid, Benzoyl Peroxide; alternative therapies such as tea tree oil, brewers Yeast, micro dermal and laser therapies; diet and proper hygiene (Dlugasch, Story, 2021).
Dlugasch, L; Story, L. (2021). Applied Pathophysiology for the Advanced Practice Nurse. P. 658-660.
Well, D. (2018). Lippincott William & Wilkins. Acne Vulgaris: A review of causes and Treatment of Options. p.1-8


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